Go to any town or city around the world and you will find animal lovers, people who own pets or are involved in animal rescue, rehabilitation or social enjoyment opportunities with other pet owners. From columns in magazines to regular features in newspapers, it seems that people who value and enjoy animals are everywhere. These animal lovers often seek out other people with similar values to share their interest and concern. They simply enjoy being with other like-minded people to talk about animal antics, and the contribution animals make to their lives and families.
I have found that many animal lovers are frustrated to learn of animal related events and news after they have occurred because they were simply not in the right place at the right time to hear about it. It seems that unless people are on the right email list, Twitter feed or Facebook page or standing in front of a physical noticeboard at the right time, there is no consistent or cohesive way of learning about animal related events and news stories. For vets or small organisations, they may not have any presence on Facebook or a website, instead promoting their events on their own or community noticeboards เว็บดูการ์ตูนออนไลน์. Word of mouth is traditionally a way of letting people know about events but this limits potential attendees to those within the vicinity of the event. Now animal organisations and vets can feel more confident that when they create events, their time will not be wasted since promotion will be wider with the increased likelihood of people attending.
Smart phone technology has come to the rescue to solve this problem giving animal lovers quick and easy access to information about animal related news and events, not only in one’s local area but also nationally or globally. Suddenly the market of potential attendees, contributors and people responding to live and online campaigns, is enhanced.
Everyone, it seems, checks their phone as much as an animal lover checks the welfare of their pets. Thus, smartphone technology offers a real opportunity to bring together animal lovers, advocates and organisations in one place – the smartphone. What better way to connect with like-minded others about everything that is animal. With new communication methods, there is real hope that the message of animal welfare will extend beyond those animal lovers who see the beauty of their pets, to all animals we share this planet with.
I believe it is safe to say that a majority of defendants charged in our courts with animal abuse have prior domestic violence convictions as well. It is because of the “generalized deviance” that domestic violence and animal abuse are correlated. Anti-social behavior of different levels can happen in one individual but how that individual came to exercise the deviance is more complicated as there are many pathways that lead to it. An example of one of these exercises is the individuals use of violence or other anti-social manipulations to “solve” problems which is called “modeling” and explains why violence is often intergenerational. Although animal abuse and domestic violence are correlated, it varies as to which occurs first.
But are there any numbers we can connect here; any studies conducted to make this deviance a little more tangible? A study done in New Jersey found that in 88% of households where children were physically abused, there were records of animal abuse as well. In Wisconsin, four out of five battered women cases revealed the partner had been violent toward pets. The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence conducted a study of abuse victims after arriving at domestic violence shelters and found that 85.4% of women and 63.0% of children reported incidents of pet abuse. The Chicago Police Department’s Domestic Violence Program compiled a history of arrestees for animal fighting/animal abuse for the period of 2000-2001 and found that approximately 30% had a conviction of domestic violence on their record. Animal abuse is often associated with other serious crimes such as drug offenses, gangs, weapons violence, sexual assault, and domestic violence and the individuals committing these acts of violence against animals are viewed as a danger to the public and therefore, must be addressed. The whole premise of an animal abuser is to demonstrate power. The abuser will batter an animal to hold control over his family, to isolate them and enforce submission. He will abuse a pet to perpetuate a fearful environment; to prevent a victim from leaving or coerce them to return. They will batter an animal to punish a victim for showing independence.
First responders and professionals who investigate abuse should be aware and trained to observe the cycle of violence. Some states practice this observance and take it a step further by implementing cross-reporting laws. When an animal control officer is called to investigate animal abuse in a home with children, they are mandated to report child abuse when animal abuse is confirmed. Children are generally more willing to discuss what happened to a pet than they are to their own victimization. In Ohio, any child under the age of 18 years of age who commits cruelty to a pet, is required to undergo psychological evaluation to determine individual or family counseling as necessary. The legislation also permit’s the court to include a protection order for any companion animal in the home of the person seeking a criminal protection order, domestic violence protection order, a civil stalking order, a sexual offense protection order, or the approval of a civil domestic violence consent agreement. Often a partner will abuse a pet that is in the home as a tactic to keep the victim under control. It is understood that many victims will not leave when it puts their pets in harm’s way. When questioning victims and their children, first responders should be alert for signs of child and/or pet victimization. They should ask if the abuser or anyone else threatened to harm their pet and ask if they need help finding a safe place for their pet to go if they leave. Many victims will not prosecute their abuser however, animal cruelty prosecution can result in incarceration or treatment that is equal to results from a domestic violence prosecution.
Domestic Violence Shelters, Animal Shelters, and Humane Organizations can do much to offer protection for animal victims. When working with abuse victims in their safety planning, be sure they include their pets. Question them about any threats or injuries to their pets. Work with legislators to include pets in orders of protection and educate judges on the necessities of these inclusions. Team up with your local animal control and humane organizations and local domestic violence shelters to establish emergency housing of pets coming from homes experiencing violence. If there is no space available, establish a network of homes that provide emergency care for these pets through foster care agencies then incorporate these connections in school programs where they might reach children who are at risk of family violence. Also, many YWCA’s have pet shelter programs that are in partnership with the humane society, local clinics, kennels, stables, and veterinarians.